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How It Works
Gear couplings are designed to transmit torque between two shafts that are not collinear. They typically consist of two flexible joints—one fixed to each shaft—which are connected by a spindle, or third shaft. The gear coupling connects the drive motor to the gearbox in hoist mechanisms, but it can also connect the gearbox directly to smaller wire rope drums using a flanged half.
In terms of their design, gear couplings transmit torque via hubs with crowned gear teeth that are in permanent mesh with the straight gear teeth of the sleeves—a design that provides the highest torque transmission for the smallest size. They also run at high speeds, conform to the AGMA bolting pattern and compensate for angular, radial and axial shaft misalignment.
– Jaw Couplings
The jaw coupling is a material flexing coupling that transmits torque thru compression of an elastomeric spider insert placed between two intermeshing jaws.
- Flex element is commonly made of NBR, polyurethane, Hytrel or Bronze
- Accommodates misalignment
- Transmits torque
- Used for torsional dampening (vibration)
- Low torque, general purpose applications
– Sleeve Coupling
The sleeve coupling transmits low to medium torque between connected equipment in shear through an elastomeric insert with male splines that mate with female hub splines. The insert material is typically EPDM, Neoprene or Hytrel and the insert can be a one or two piece design.
- Moderate misalignment
- Torsional dampening (vibration)
- End float with slight axial clearance
- Low to medium torque, general purpose applications
– Tire Coupling
These couplings have a rubber or polyurethane element connected to two hubs. The rubber element transmits torque in shear.
- Reduces transmission of shock loads or vibration.
- High misalignment capacity
- Easy assembly w/o moving hubs or connected equipment
- Moderate to high speed operation
- Wide range of torque capacity
– Disc Coupling
The disc coupling’s principle of operation has the torque transmitted through flexing disc elements. It operates through tension and compression of chorded segments on a common bolt circle bolted alternately between the drive and driven side. These couplings are typically comprised of two hubs, two discs packs, and a center member. A single disc pack can accommodate angular and axial misalignment. Two disc packs are needed to accommodate parallel misalignment.
• Allows angular parallel and axial misalignment
• Is a true limited end float design
• A zero backlash design
• High speed rating and balance
Diaphragm couplings utilize a single or a series of plates or diaphragms for the flexible members. It transmits torque from the outside diameter of a flexible plate to the inside diameter, across the spool or spacer piece, and then from inside to outside diameter. The deflection of the outer diameter relative to the inner diameter is what occurs when the diaphragm is subject to misalignment. For example, axial displacement attempts stretch the diaphragm which results in a combination of elongations and bending of the diaphragm profile.
• Allows angular, parallel and high axial misalignments
• Used in high torque, high speed applications
– Gear Couplings
Gear couplings transmit the highest amount of torque and the highest amount of torque in the smallest diameter of any flexible coupling.
Each coupling consists of two hubs with crowned external gear teeth. The hubs mesh with two internally splined flanged sleeves that are bolted together. Gear couplings accommodate angular and axial misalignment by the rocking and sliding of the crowned gear teeth against the mating sleeve teeth. Parallel misalignment is accommodated by having two adjacent hub/sleeve flex points. Gear couplings require periodic lubrication depending on the application.
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A coupling is a device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or end movement or both. In a more general context, a coupling can also be a mechanical device that serves to connect the ends of adjacent parts or objects.Couplings do not normally allow disconnection of shafts during operation, however there are torque limiting couplings which can slip or disconnect when some torque limit is exceeded. Selection, installation and maintenance of couplings can lead to reduced maintenance time and maintenance cost.
Clamped or compression rigid couplings come in two parts and fit together around the shafts to form a sleeve. They offer more flexibility than sleeved models, and can be used on shafts that are fixed in place. They generally are large enough so that screws can pass all the way through the coupling and into the second half to ensure a secure hold. Flanged rigid couplings are designed for heavy loads or industrial equipment. They consist of short sleeves surrounded by a perpendicular flange. One coupling is placed on each shaft so the two flanges line up face to face. A series of screws or bolts can then be installed in the flanges to hold them together. Because of their size and durability, flanged units can be used to bring shafts into alignment before they are joined together.